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ARI in children is the most common disease that occurs due to the penetration of infectious pathogens into the body that affect the respiratory system. ARI is a disease that always proceeds in an acute form and is distinguished by a pronounced symptomatic picture.

Why does ARI occur?

The causes of ARI are not particularly diverse. The only factor provoking ARI is the penetration of a pathogenic virus into the body. The infection penetrates by airborne droplets in case of contact with a sick person.

The exception is an enterovirus, which enters the human body with food. ARI occurs most often in children of preschool and primary school age. This is because that children, especially those who attend kindergarten and other preschool institutions, are in close contact with other kids, and the disease itself is much more acute than in adults due to the poorly developed protective function of the immune system. Factors that increase the risk of developing ARI are as follows:

  • hypothermia of the body;
  • insufficient amount of vitamins;
  • cold season;
  • weak immune system.

Clinical picture

Symptoms of ARI are manifested quickly and immediately have a pronounced picture. Symptoms of ARI in children and adults are almost the same, they differ only in the intensity of the manifestations. In children, the intoxication of the body resulting from the of the infectious microflora is much more difficult than in adults. Common symptoms of ARI are:

  • cough;
  • rhinitis;
  • redness of the throat;
  • pain while swallowing food and saliva;
  • increased lacrimation;
  • lethargy and drowsiness;
  • temperature rise;
  • muscle and joint pain;
  • bouts of vomiting, diarrhoea;
  • swollen lymph nodes.

Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections in adults are most often limited to fever, chills, cough and runny nose. Dysfunctions of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract are quite rare.

Diagnostic examination

 

If ARI is suspected, the diagnosis includes not only examining the patient and studying his main complaints but also passing some medical tests – PCR and ELISA – a smear from the mucous membrane of the larynx wall to study the type of infectious pathogen. Without this measure, the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections can be significantly delayed.

The fastest test for determining the type of pathogen carried out as part of the diagnosis of the disease is an immunofluorescence rapid test, the results of which are ready within a few hours after the smear is taken. In the case of suspected complications, an X-ray of the lungs is performed.

Therapies

Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children and adults implies mandatory bed rest. In children, the need to constantly be in bed can cause some difficulties, so parents are advised to limit their physical activity by taking board games.

Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections will be easier and faster, if you help the body in the fight against intoxication, for this you need to drink as much plain water as possible at room temperature. With severe nasal congestion in adults and children, inhalation with drugs containing eucalyptus is recommended. If there is coughing, you can put mustard plasters. Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children under the age of 12 months should be under the supervision of a paediatrician.

In the case of an increase in temperature, antipyretic drugs are prescribed. In the case of digestive tract disorders (diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting), drugs are prescribed that normalise the digestive system and reduce the degree of intoxication of the body – Smecta, Regidron. Treatment of ARI in adults and children with antibiotics is carried out only in cases where the disease has worsened, and other drugs do not give a positive effect.