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Injuries of ENT organs occur due to mechanical, thermal or chemical effects on them. Depending on what caused the injury, and what are its features, the following types of ENT injuries are distinguished:

  • open (cut, gunshot, chipped);
  • closed (internal, external).

Internal injuries of ENT organs are associated with the penetration of foreign objects into them.

Nose injury

Any trauma to the nose, regardless of the cause and type of injury, is accompanied by heavy bleeding. Injuries to the nose are associated with loss of the integrity of its bones, in most cases, the nasal septum suffers, which breaks or bends due to mechanical stress (blow). A fracture of the nasal bones is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • heavy bleeding;
  • hematoma;
  • difficulty breathing
  • strong pain.

If a fracture of the nasal bones is accompanied by their displacement, deformation of the nose is observed. If eczema forms during a nasal injury during attempts to cleanse the nose, this is a sign of mucosal integrity loss. In case of nasal injuries, emergency care is required to stop bleeding using tamponade. In case of a fracture of the nasal bones, an operation is performed to restore them.

Ear injuries

Damage to the auricle occurs when it’s exposed to irritating factors. Ear injuries can be mechanical, chemical, thermal and due to radiation. Depending on the degree of injury, it can lead to partial or complete destruction of the ear, often damage to the auricle leads to complete hearing loss.

If the auricle is damaged, an otohematoma can occur – this is a haemorrhage that forms a hematoma between the cartilage and perichondrium. The sign of damage to the auricle is swelling of a bluish colour that forms on the cartilage. If the hematoma is small, it resolves with time on its own and does not require medical intervention.

With otohematomas of large diameter, emergency assistance is necessary. The contents of the otohematoma are punctured or cut out, a pressing bandage is applied. If the ear has suffered mechanical damage during which tissue rupture has occurred, it is necessary to stop the bleeding, treat the wound and restore the integrity of the soft tissues. Next, the patient is prescribed drugs with an anti-inflammatory effect.

Burn of the auricle is a thermal injury to the ear, which can lead to serious consequences if treatment is not provided in time. The main symptom is pain, the intensity of which depends on the severity of the burn. Treatment – emergency medical care, with minor burns – the independent use of special medicines, such as Panthenol.

Frostbite of the auricle is an ear injury that occurs when exposed to low temperatures. Depending on the severity of the clinical picture, these degrees are distinguished:

  • 1 degree – redness;
  • 2 degree – swelling, the appearance of blisters;
  • 3 degree – soft tissue necrosis;
  • 4 degree – necrosis of the ear cartilage.

The intensity of the pain syndrome depends on the degree of frostbite.

Treatment: in the first 2 degrees of frostbite, a bandage dipped in boric alcohol (3%) is applied to damaged soft tissues. In case of frostbite of the auricle of 3 and 4 degrees, dressings are applied, dipped with the drug – Vishnevsky ointment. In the case of intense pain, the patient is prescribed potent analgesic drugs of the narcotic group – caffeine or morphine.