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Epidural hematoma

Treatment of epidural hematoma of the brain, a blood clot between the dura mater and the inside of the cranium, should be timely. This disease is dangerous because the accumulation of blood begins to compress certain parts of the brain, leading to neuropathic disorders. In the case of epidural hematoma, arterial bleeding develops. Epidural hematoma is more common in adults. Epidural hematoma in children occurs rarely, which is associated with the anatomical features of the cranium in children.

Symptoms&Signs

An epidural hematoma can develop in different ways, depending on the severity of the injury to the cranium. The most common scenario of the development of a hematoma is a loss of consciousness immediately after traumatic injury, with further gradual worsening of the condition. The main clinical manifestations include:

  • severe pain in the head;
  • frequent bouts of dizziness;
  • general weakness, apathy;
  • memory impairment, short-term amnesia.

What leads to this disease?

An epidural hematoma occurs due to traumatic brain injury. It can be a heavy object falling from a height onto the head, a car accident, often this disease occurs in people who engage in active sports – skiing, ice skating. Most often, epidural hematoma develops in the temporal lobe or lower parietal region – the sections most vulnerable to injuries.

Diagnosis and treatment methods

To diagnose the presence of an epidural hematoma, it is enough for a neurologist to examine the patient. For a detailed study of the hematoma, its location and size, it is necessary to conduct an MRI or CT scan.

Epidural hematoma on CT.

Surgical treatment is applied.

Cases, when a conservative method using medications is used for epidural hematoma, are extremely rare, since this pathology develops very quickly, and the patient does not have time for long-term treatment with medications.

A craniotomy is a transcranial method of surgical intervention, which involves opening the cranium. The brain is opened using the bone-plastic method when after the operation part of the bone is returned to its place, or by the resection method if part of the bone tissue cannot be preserved (it is performed with extensive, severe craniocerebral injuries).

Endoscopic removal of epidural hematoma is a minimally invasive operation performed on small hematomas. What is the given method based on? In the patient’s skull, at the location of the hematoma, a small hole is made through which a special tool will be inserted. Minimally invasive surgery is always preferred, since there is no risk of injury to healthy brain tissue, as is the likelihood of complications after surgery.

The disadvantage of this operation in case of epidural hematoma is that it is not suitable for hematomas occupying a large area since there is a possibility that it will not be possible to remove all blood clots, due to their inaccessibility and a small hole in the skull.

The risk of relapse after removal of the epidural hematoma is not excluded, which is associated with severe trauma and too extensive hematomas, when, due to the inaccessibility of some sites, it is not possible to completely remove blood clots.

After surgery, the patient must undergo a course of drug therapy to restore the body and prevent the risk of relapse. It is mandatory to take vitamins and to adhere to a therapeutic diet. In the event of a sharp deterioration of the condition, you must immediately consult a doctor.