Facelift and cervical lifting (neck lift) is a facial operation in plastic surgery, aimed at correcting age-related changes and main rejuvenation, while preserving the individuality of each person, natural facial expressions and natural facial features.
It is best to perform a facelift surgery at the age of 40+, as the processes of visible ageing have just begun, but the skin has not yet lost its elasticity, turgor and ability to regenerate well are present, and it has not undergone gross age-related changes. At a younger age, facelift surgery can be replaced by a number of minimally invasive techniques to maintain youth.
Cervicoplasty is an operation to excise excess skin on the neck. When excess skin is combined with sagging subcutaneous muscles, platysmoplasty is performed – a lifting of the subcutaneous muscle of the neck (platysma). In the presence of excess fat, liposuction of the neck and chin is done.
– Visible loss of skin elasticity, sagging
– Age-related changes, deep multiple wrinkles
– Appearance of the “second chin”
– Appearance of the so-called “points” – sagging soft tissues of the cheeks below the contour of the lower jaw
– Omission of the skin, muscles and adipose tissue in the cheeks and chin
– Deformation of the oval of the face, the absence of a clear line of the lower jaw
– Extra fat in the neck, excess skin
– Deep, pronounced horizontal folds — rings of Venus
How is the operation performed?
Surgical face and neck lift is always performed under general anaesthesia, as the operation is quite long and invasive. The duration of the operation is determined by the choice of surgical technique and the scale of the tasks.
– Open method (classical) – involves a fairly long incision from the temple along the auricle to the neck along the scalp. In this case, skin tension is performed with further excision of excess tissue.
– Endoscopic method – involves access through incisions or punctures, and later implementation through them subsequent manipulations.
– SMAS-technique – deep face lifting, implies not only skin lifting, but also deep soft tissues, muscles. The essence of this technique is that the myofibrotic layer is pulled, which pulls surrounding tissues.
Depending on the zone, there are:
– Upper lift – lifting the forehead and overhanging eyebrows.
– Forehead lift (endoscopic) – in this case, incisions are made from 1 to 4 cm in size in the scalp.
– Open forehead lift is carried out quite rarely, and the main indications for conducting it are a high forehead and a very large amount of excess tissue that cannot be removed by the endoscopic method, so it is more rational to conduct this access.
– Direct eyebrow lift is performed if the patient does not have deep wrinkles and excess tissue in the forehead, and the eyebrows remain lowered. The procedure is very simple, because during the operation, small areas of tissue above the eyebrows are removed. Traces after the operation are invisible, as they are camouflaged by natural hair growth in this area.
Eyebrows are raised, wrinkles are smoothed, the forehead becomes smooth, and the look is younger and more expressive.
– Medium lift. The need for this type of facelift arises when a person has a pronounced sagging in the cheek area, with deep wrinkles, nasolabial folds, paint bags and nasolacrimal grooves. Often, surgical access with this type of operation is made through an incision in the lower eyelid (in this case, a small scar is located on a natural fold and becomes almost invisible), on the temple or on the inner surface of the cheeks.
– Lower facelift. SMAS-lifting of the lower two-thirds of the face and neck is a frequently used method of rejuvenation for sagging cheeks, pronounced nasolabial folds and “points”, the second chin, folds on the shoulders and neck, the presence of excess tissue on the neck and bottom line of the face. The skin is lifted by SMAS technique, excess tissue is cut off and excess fat deposits on the neck are removed by liposuction. Access with this technique is via the back and front of the auricle, the skin is pierced on a chin with 3 mm long cut.
Contraindications for the operation:
– oncological diseases;
– infectious diseases;
– blood coagulation disorders;
– skin lesions;
– pregnancy and breast feeding;
– allergic disorders;
– mental illness;
– chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system;
– diseases of the endocrine system.
Complications that may arise due to a facelift:
– Scars and swelling. In the first days of rehabilitation scars look unaesthetic and the swelling is painful, but fortunately, these minor complications disappear in a few days after the operation.
– Hematomas. Under the skin, small hemorrhages can form as a result of trauma to the vessels during surgery.
– Temporary loss of sensitivity. Due to the large scale of the operation, the surgeon can touch and cut small branches of the facial nerves, which may be accompanied by a loss of sensitivity and motor functions of the facial muscles.
The duration of the result after surgery is determined by the following factors:
– preoperative skin condition
– strict compliance with postoperative rehabilitation recommendations
– genetic predisposition
– features of the properties of your skin
– diet and bad habits
Rehabilitation after a facelift:
During the first days, as mentioned above, swelling and bruising are possible, which pass very quickly. At first, it is worth giving up physical activity, playing sports, visiting saunas and solariums. Wear an elastic bandage all the time. Removal of sutures takes place in 5-7 days. You can wash your hair and use cosmetics after 7-8 days. You can enter society after two weeks, and complete rehabilitation takes place after 1-1.5 months, then you can evaluate the true result of the operation.