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Sinusitis

Sinusitis is a nasal disease is an inflammation of the sinuses that occurs when pathogenic microflora enters the nasal mucosa. Sinusitis is similar in symptoms to the common cold, which is why most people begin to self-medicate, thereby delaying the course of the disease and exacerbating the inflammatory process.

What causes the disease?

The disease of the nose, sinusitis occurs due to the ingestion of pathogenic microbes into the nasal cavity, mouth, and throat by airborne or domestic means. In the normal state of the immune system, microbes can be on the mucous membranes for a long time, without showing themselves, but under the influence of provoking factors, nasal disease sinusitis begins to develop. Factors provoking of the disease:

  • an allergic reaction of the body;
  • severe hypothermia;
  • the presence of concomitant diseases that reduce immunity;
  • abnormalities in the structure of the nasal sinuses.

Clinical picture

Symptoms of sinusitis are not specific, this clinical picture is characteristic of most diseases of the nasopharynx:

  • increase of body temperature;
  • nasal congestion;
  • headache;
  • deterioration in overall health;
  • runny nose;
  • lack of appetite;
  • bad sleep;
  • drowsiness, fatigue and apathy.

Symptoms of sinusitis can have different intensity, depending on the severity of the inflammatory process and the causes of the disease. In adults, the disease is easier than in children, which is associated with the formed immune system.

  • Mild sinusitis – minimal intoxication, minor headaches, nasal congestion are present. Body temperature is normal or is slightly increased.
  • Moderate severity of sinusitis – moderate intoxication, prolonged headache of moderate-intensity, body temperature – from 38 to 38.5 degrees Celsius. Symptoms of moderate sinusitis can be manifested by swelling of the eyelids, swelling on the soft tissues of the sinuses.
  • Severe sinusitis – symptoms of sinusitis and the causes of the development of the disease are associated with severe intoxication of the body, headache is pronounced, sinuses hurt. The temperature rises to 39 degrees. If timely treatment of sinusitis is not carried out, severe consequences may develop, in particular, chronic sinusitis develops from the acute form of the disease.

Diagnostic methods

Symptoms of sinusitis in adults and children in the initial stages have similar symptoms with a cold, which is why self-medication exacerbates the disease. Before treating sinusitis, it is necessary to undergo a medical examination by an ENT doctor, if necessary, tests are prescribed – an x-ray of the sinuses, ultrasound and CT, or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. If complications are suspected, an MRI scan of the brain is performed.

Therapy methods

The treatment of sinusitis is conservative. The attending physician depending on the symptoms of the disease selects medications. In adults, in the presence of complications, treatment of sinusitis is carried out with antibiotics. Vasoconstrictive drops are used to facilitate breathing. In the treatment of sinusitis in adults and children, in addition to taking medications, physiotherapy is prescribed – UHF therapy of the sinuses, ultraviolet radiation therapy of the oral cavity. These procedures help reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms of the disease.

With a prolonged course of sinusitis and high risks of complications, sinusitis is treated surgically. To release pus from the sinuses, a puncture is performed – a puncture of the sinuses. After the cavity is cleaned of pus, it is irrigated with antiseptic solutions. To prevent re-accumulation of purulent masses after a puncture, a temporary catheter is placed.