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Kyphoscoliosis is a deformation of the spinal column, in which frontal and sagittal planes are simultaneously curved. Kyphoscoliosis is a disease that combines signs of scoliosis and kyphosis. The disease has congenital and acquired forms.

Causes of deformation

Congenital kyphoscoliosis occurs due to abnormalities in the structure and development of the spinal column: the presence of extra or insufficient vertebrae, underdevelopment of intervertebral discs, irregular shape or size of the vertebrae. This disease is diagnosed  in young children aged 6-8 months when babies begin to sit.

Acquired kyphoscoliosis in adults and children occurs for the following reasons:

  • disruption of the structure of connective tissue;
  • complications after rickets;
  • presence of neoplasms on the spinal column;
  • poliomyelitis;
  • cerebral palsy;
  • muscle diseases – myopathy, myotonic dystrophy;
  • excessive load on spine;
  • violation of posture;
  • overweight (obesity);
  • surgery on the spinal column;
  • spinal injury.

In cases where the causes of kyphoscoliosis remain unexplored, a diagnosis of idiopathic kyphoscoliosis is made.

Stages

This disease develops  in stages:

  • Kyphoscoliosis of the 1st degree – minimal degree of deviation to the side, the curvature of the vertebrae from the axis of not more than 1- 9 degrees (normal – not more than 45 degrees).
  • Kyphoscoliosis of the 2nd degree – curvature of the spinal column by 10-20 degrees. Vertebrae begin to curl along their axis.
  • Kyphoscoliosis of the 3d degree – deviation from the axis of the spinal column by 21 – 31 degr Visual changes are visible; the spine is curved to the side (to the right – right-sided kyphoscoliosis, to the left – left-sided). The vertebrae are completely twisted vertically along their axis.
  • Kyphoscoliosis of thoracic spine of the 4th degree – spinal deformity of more than 20 degr Visual changes are visible, deformations of the spine become irreversible, compression of internal organs occurs, which disrupts their functions.

Clinical picture

Symptoms of kyphoscoliosis are as follows:

  • asymmetric arrangement of the bones of the pelvis, shoulder blades and shoulder line;
  • side curvature of the spine (left or right);
  • back pain, aggravated by prolonged lying down;
  • protrusion of abdomen;
  • gastrointestinal tract dysfunction;
  • constant fatigue;
  • decreased physical stamina.

Therapeutic measures

Treatment of kyphoscoliosis is selected by the doctor individually, depending on the severity of the disease and the intensity of manifestation of the clinical picture. In the early stages of the development of pathological curvature of the spine, conservative treatment is used. Patient is prescribed a course of exercise therapy and physiotherapy aimed at stopping painful symptoms of kyphoscoliosis and reducing the load on the muscles to relieve spasm.

It is mandatory to wear special bandages and corsets. The course of therapeutic massage helps to improve blood circulation, relieves muscle cramps. Medications are prescribed only with exacerbation of symptomatic picture.

In extreme cases, when kyphoscoliosis cannot be corrected by conservative methods, a surgical operation is performed.

Indications for surgery:

  • kyphoscoliosis of stage 4;
  • severe pain syndrome;
  • neurological complications;
  • pressure on internal organs, which leads to their dysfunction.

In some cases, surgery is prescribed to eliminate cosmetic defects. After operation, a long recovery and rehabilitation period follows.