MedClinic > Blog > Traumatology > Scoliosis


Scoliosis, the treatment of which is long and complex, can be prevented by knowing the causes of the disease and the first signs of curvature.

What is scoliosis?

This is a curvature of the spine, in which the vertebrae rotate around their axis.

Scoliosis is a disease characterized by rapid progression and without timely treatment,  in several years it can lead to complications in the work of internal organs.


Scoliosis, depending on the causes and symptoms of the disease, is divided into the following types:

  • congenital form – curvature is associated with congenital anomalies in the structure of the spinal column;
  • static – occurs due to structural disorders of bone and articular tissue in lower extremities – congenital dislocation of the hip joint, shortening of the limb, flat feet;
  • neurogenic – causes – paralysis, myopathy, poliomyelitis;
  • idiopathic type is the most common form of scoliosis, the aetiology of which is still not fully known. Possible causes of the development of this disease are hormonal disruptions and degenerative processes in bone tissue and muscle corset.

The disease develops gradually and includes the following stages:

  • Scoliosis of the 1st degree is the easiest form, in which the vertebrae depart from the axis by 10 degrees, no more.
  • Scoliosis of the 2nd degree – curvature of the spinal column from 11 to 25 degrees.
  • Scoliosis of the 3d degree – the vertebrae extend from the axis from 26 to 50 degrees.
  • Scoliosis of the 4th degree – the most severe form of curvature of the spine, in which the vertebrae deviate from the axis by more than 60 degrees.

Curvature of the spine, depending on which side the vertebrae curve from the axis, has two forms – left-sided scoliosis and right-sided scoliosis.

Symptomatic manifestations

Scoliosis of the spine of the acquired form occurs, in most cases, in children aged 11 to 15 years, which is associated with constant sitting at the desk in the wrong position. In the early stages, the disease does not have a pronounced clinical picture, so it is extremely important to regularly undergo a medical preventive examination. A doctor can detect the first changes in the state of the spinal column.

Signs of scoliosis:

  • asymmetry of the shoulder line;
  • the shoulder blades are at different levels;
  • twisted pelvis.

Due to the constant tension of muscle corset, scoliosis leads to rapid physical fatigue and back pain. Scoliosis of the thoracic spine without timely treatment can lead to complications in the work of internal organs.

Therapeutic measures

Scoliosis in the first stages of development is treated with conservative methods. A medical corset is prescribed. If scoliosis is diagnosed in a baby, during sleep it is fixed in a special bed with a plaster form. Exercises and physiotherapy are appointed.

It is mandatory to maintain proper posture, only an orthopaedic mattress is used for sleep. Medications are prescribed only if the disease has worsened, and the patient has pain symptom, the functioning of internal organs is disrupted.

Scoliosis to the right or left of the 4th degree can only be corrected by surgery. Tendons, vertebrae, intervertebral discs are subject to adjustment. During surgical intervention, the method of fixing vertebrae at the desired angle to the axis is used.

It is important to remember that scoliosis is a curvature of the spine that cannot be corrected on its own, a doctor breaks down all the treatment procedures and exercises for each patient individually.